Research and Rationale

R & R

GAA 3D Planetarium

These links, divided into topics, provide more detailed information about the pedagogical research and rationale on standards-based grading from some of the top minds in education:


Multiple Opportunities - O’Connor

Redos and Retakes Done Right” - Wormeli

Extra Credit

Fixes for Practices That Distort Achievement - O’Connor

Group Work

How to Grade for Learning: Grading Individuals - O’Connor

A Repair Kit for Grading - O’Connor


Fixes to Support Learning - O’Connor

Behaviour (ATLs)

A’s for Good Behavior - Tyre

What’s in a Grade - Scott

Incomplete or Late Work

The Case Against the Zero - Reeves

Formative/Summative Assessments

Maximizing the Power of Formative Assessments - Stiggins and DuFour

Formative Assessment - Heritage

“Formative Assessment” - Brookhart, Moss, and Long